5:30am April 7, 2017 .
Thousand Trails South Jetty, Florence, OR
Thor’s Hammer vs. Gulf Stream..!!
While science shows that Hugging Trees is good for your health. We’re are of the opinion… that a tree hugging you, or your coach is absolutely not healthy, and should be avoided.
Our theory was given a proper test early Friday morning. Without the warning of lighting or thunder, just the fury of the wind at work… a two or three ton, 90ft+ Hemlock Tree was literally thrown at our beautiful Gulf Stream Coach, hitting us with approx. twenty tons of force on the roof of our bedroom. Scary way to wake up.
Fortunately like Captain America’s iconic Shield, our coach endowed with the magic of Gulf Stream, deflected the force the tree from smashing our coach to the ground.
Well, you gotta find a way to laugh about this sort of thing… we can’t live in fear, we can “seize the day” and move forward. Besides, we are not personally injured.
The tree certainly damaged our coach, the takeaway is…
Gulf Stream’s unique coach construction and Creator insurance saved our lives.
Like Thor’s Hammer, this tree is unliftable by ordinary humans, it will require a small crane or other professional well insured removal, to prevent further damage to the coach. So obviously, our coach is going no where until Thousand Trails safely and professionally removes their tree, it is currently pinned down here at the South Jetty, Florence Resort.
Fortunately, we love it here and our coach is our shield, so no further safety worries are obvious. Though being pinned under a tree and dealing with the imposed accident negotiations does affect our income and it has been a stressful week+ already. Marileen has had some trouble sleeping since, likewise DuckBird. So we pray the matter will be resolved before the stress and financial burdens grow beyond reason.
Unfortunately, the damage did not stop at the exterior, inside the coach, the bedroom roof is damaged enough that the moulding around the ceiling on the passenger side of the bedroom came down. Likewise in the aviary, you can see that the roof is crushed at the corner of the wall at the bedroom / bathroom and the ceiling shows some crease across the middle over the bed.
Additionally, the damage to the corner where the tree is currently lodged is severe, it has cracked the shell of the coach and exposed it to water damage. (click the image to enlarge)
Likewise the impact destroyed our bedroom ceiling speakers which came crashing down on my wife and I, fortunately the speakers did not hit either of us, if they did we would be fatally injured as they weigh perhaps 3lbs+ each (old heavy magnet style speakers).
A Thousand Words in Pictures
Following is a large collection of images. Turns out the damage is quite extensive. But if the coach were not built so well, we would not be here to take the pics and post the story.
CLICK THE BUTTONS BELOW FOR PICS
** Every picture can be clicked to enlarge.
More pictures pending as time permits.
This Hemlock Tree is about 80-100ft, and 2 or 3 tons. It jumped at us with momentum perhaps 20 tons force.
Fortunately, it just missed the slider. Cannot tell if we can close the slider until the tree is removed.
We’re safe, but clearly we are pinned and not going anywhere with this tree hugging us.
More pictures pending as time permits.
You can see that if this tree were to fall the opposite direction, that small trailer and truck would have been completely crushed, no survivors to be sure. Praise the Creator that was not the case. Our coach was stronger.
Below, it damaged the cover for the refrigerator vents. Could be worse.
You can see that it clearly made it’s own perfect dent to settle at the corner.
Just missed breaking our shower skylight. Nice.
That’s the top sky vent for DuckBird’s Aviary to the middle right. She was scared bad and dropped to the floor, poor girl.
Here the dent is more obvious…
The skylights are a bit sensitive, so happy it missed them. Though one small branch in the middle is a fraction from busting through…
These images show clearly the broken corner now getting water damage in the wall…
Not good. Need to get the tree off to quick patch this…
Looks like the awning may have allowed some shock absorbing assist. Not a lot though.
Below, you see that the roof over the bedroom is now warped. I suspect this is just the fiberglass sheeting not the hardboard, but must remove the tree to see better the condition.
These images show that the other side of the tree, the corner is not broken. Again, a credit to the strength of this construction. I suspect one of the roll cage bars is just where you see the roof meet the tree here.
More pictures pending as time permits.
Above the passenger side of the bedroom over office.
Crushed the wall here between bedroom and laundry closet.
In DuckBird’s Aviary… See why she got scared? Plus her aviary is mostly moving branches connected with chains to simulate tree movement. So they all jumped a lot, to be sure. Plus DuckBird has been lonely since her brother has been missing. Learn more
Inside the laundry closet above the washer/dryer.
Here you see the most obvious crushed wall…
The holes for the speakers that fell out over our bed.
Interior wall damages pending photos. Check back shortly
More pictures pending as time permits.
This is the Hemlock Tree that broke and fell on us..
See that it just shattered here…
In the foreground left is the bottom 10ft of the tree. It’s about 40ft more to the coach from the end of the broken tree on the ground.
The top 10ft of the Hemlock Tree busted off in the force of the fall.
There’s about 30ft of tree hanging from us on the other side of the coach.
Gulfstream – Built Tuff
“Fortunately, it fell on our built tuff coach.”
Had the tree fallen west, rather than to the south, it would have completely destroyed either of two smaller RVs, clearly not able to withstand 2-3 tons, likely completely destroying them.
Both of these smaller RVs are owned by very nice folks, and it’s awesome they did not get hit. Praise the Creator for that, and our Gulf Stream motor coach.
The unique construction of our Gulf Stream is what saved our lives. Unlike most motorhomes and coaches…
Gulf Stream starts with a custom designed strong Freightliner XC-Series Motorhome Chassis, then builds a custom roll cage, similar to a Dune Buggy roll cage with more sections of course (see the cutaway pic).
This unique design provides superior strength and in this case. Even so, the tree also made limited contact at the intersection of a less sturdy interior wall, between the bedroom and laundry.
The wall of course was crushed, as it obviously could not have held the impact of Thor’s Hammer, it is merely 2×2 construction.
In the pictures below, you will see the interior damage is quite extensive in the corner of the bedroom and inside the laundry closet.
However, the roof sheeting over the bedroom is damaged all the way across, such that if the roll bar cage were not there, the tree would have smashed the bedroom roof on top of us. It’s most likely my wife and I would have been seriously or fatally injured.
So Now What?
Much of the damage to the coach is visible and the pictures below offer a fairly comprehensive view of the situation. But full damage to the frame is yet to be determined. In part, the Hemlock tree must be removed to see the actual impact area, and evaluate what can be fixed and what it will cost, etc.
a fellow that not so long ago worked for a coach builder took a look, shook his head and said likely the insurance company will total the coach as the cost of repair will be too high.
Of course we will have to wait a few days to see how that works out. Once we have the insurance plan figured we can plan on where this goes next. My wife and I live full time in this coach so we need to fix or replace it to continue our lifestyle.
Since we may have to replace our coach, it’s simply a no brainer, we buy yet another Gulf Stream, this one saved our lives, duh. Plus, we love it, see why here.
Naturally, I’ll be calling my friends over at Gulf Stream next week, I’m going to beg them to re-open the Motor Coach division and build us a new coach.
Why would I gamble with any other brand after this incredible test for quality construction and value..?
You might guess… Gulf Stream is a family run company that builds RVs for families. Of course this commitment shows when you survive a disaster like this.
It’s clear they designed it to survive the worst you can throw at it, even a 2-3 ton tree it seems. Our Gulf Stream faired better than many Stix + Bricks homes as the news shows for the same night in Oregon.
Not to mention, Gulf Stream has always gone out of their way to help us with any little thing, even the dumb questions.
They treat you like your a ten million dollar customer, at every call.
In a world where most companies are focused on profits… the team at Gulf Stream focuses on safety and quality.
We can certainly say we’re proud of our Gulf Stream, and we’re happy to be alive to say that today. ~Many Mahalos to Team Gulf Stream.
see the news: OregonLive: “It was one of the harshest windstorms in the past two decades“, KOIN-TV6: “Wind topples trees, power lines” and KGW-TV: “More than 3,000 PGE customers still without power“.
Thousand Trails – A Silver lining..?
The tree hit us like Thor’s Hammer, at about 5:30 am, minutes later, the entire RV park lost power and water. So with nothing but 12v to work with, we opened a file on the laptop, and started documenting the damage to our coach. Who’s going sleep after such a close call.
7:45 am, we sent the damage notice to Shari Paulsen, the District Manager for Thousand Trails.
10:39 am, her response: “…submitting our internal paperwork shortly, and once that is received by our insurance company, they will contact you…”
more see: Updates Below
Thousand Trails offers a near perfect camping experience, one reason we recently upgraded to Thousand Trails Elite Membership. If only the darn Hemlock tree was cooperating with the same spirit.
Notes + Updates
This is an ongoing matter until our coach is first out from under the big tree.
Then we need to deal with the damages.
The following are related updates, research notes, etc.
Obviously, we are stuck under Thousand Trails tree. It’s too heavy to move manually, it will require hydraulic assistance. At the very least, it must be removed in a way that does not allow it to crash down on the coach roof again.
The roof is already damaged and the additional weight is likely to cause more damage. Until the tree is moved, we cannot fully asses the damage, and further water damage is likely since we are unable to seal the damage around the current tree contact point.
The subject tree is without question property of Thousand Trails;
The tree owner is responsible to safely remove their own tree; regardless of any related liability interpretation in this matter. Likewise, we believe professional removal is just a matter of hiring the right contractor, who’s insurance will indemnify additional loss or damage due to an improper or careless removal strategy.
Not unreasonable or complicated, just a simple request.
The damage occurred while safely parked and connected with full service hookups in an RV Park (public access recreation facility) and involves a “Hazard Tree” (see: Science, below), ie; it’s a simple matter of ‘negligence’.
Not looking to make a crazy multi-million dollar claim. We simply ask that Thousand Trails pay the damages.
Thousand Trails Responses
UPDATED – as sent/received
What follows is a timeline summary of Thousand Trails two-way corporate communications on this matter:
Monday, April 10, 2017 – waiver offer
Monday morning the South Jetty, Manager Kate… offered to remove the tree from our coach, with a “catch“, waive the possibility of more potential damage to our coach, “without recourse“.
Naturally, we declined that limited and potentially more costly offer.
Tuesday, April 11, 2017 – email from; TT/ELS
The District Manager, Shari Paulsen, requested to setup a conference call for 2pm. Wednesday.
We confirmed all good.
Wednesday, April 12, 2017 – meetup; Rodgers / Paulsen
We made ready for the 2pm conference call, and dialed in the code to attend 5 minutes early, District Manager, Shari Paulsen came on the line a couple minutes later.
Unfortunately, other company executives from Chicago had difficulties attending, and the call was postponed to Thursday.
Thursday, April 13, 2017 – meetup; Rodgers / TT-ELS
The District Manager, Shari Paulsen, again setup a conference call for 11:30am, with the Risk Management Dept. for Thousand Trails.
Mary Jo speaking for TT Risk Management, said Quote; “The Hemlock Tree looks healthy” and said; “it was… an Act of God”, disclaiming ELS/TT liability for the tree removal and damages.
We disagree, but we noted they had not seen contrary evidence, and immediately sent “Mary Jo” (ie; via the District Manager), substantial additional materials upon which to hopefully revise ‘her’ initial assessment of the “Hazard Tree” and related “ELS/TT liability”. (update pending)
Friday, April 14, 2017 – on property update; TT Staff
We were advised by South Jetty staff, that the South Jetty Property Manager Kate was fired without notice.
No further information available as yet.
Monday, April 17, 2017 – no reply
Again, no follow up communications from Thousand Trails.
Tuesday, April 18, 2017 – no reply
Again, no follow up communications from Thousand Trails.
Wednesday, April 19, 2017 – email sent by; Rodgers
With no follow up communications from Thousand Trails, we sent a follow up email to District Manager, Shari Paulsen requesting that she confirm a designated party, to continue communications on this matter.
We had thought that might be Mary Jo, in the Risk Management Dept. But as we have no contact information, we felt compelled to request a clarification from Shari, regarding the correct communications protocol for this matter.
Thursday, April 20, 2017 – no reply
Again, no follow up communications from Thousand Trails.
Though it may be that District Manager, Shari Paulsen is buried in a regional meeting, so we’ll be patient a bit longer.
(ie; staff at South Jetty said Shari was out this week for such a meeting)
Friday, April 21, 2017 – email from; TT/ELS
2:30p – District Manager, Shari Paulsen, returned from a Regional meeting, and sent an email requesting to connect for an update.
We were out and confirmed a 1pm meetup Saturday.
Saturday, April 22, 2017 – meetup; Rodgers / Paulsen
District Manager, Shari Paulsen, called, at the Regional meeting she met with upperTT/ELS management. She was instructed to relay that their position remains, [they disclaim any ELS/TT liability for the tree removal and damages.]
However, they confirmed “their best offer stands” ELS/TT will have their tree company “remove their tree”, if we “without recourse” waive more damage to our coach.
Meanwhile, our insurance company, Progressive, confirmed they are sending an adjuster Monday to help us with damage assessment, dealing with ELS/TT, etc. Mahalo to Progressive.
So very awesome they did not stop with the first claims call. A bit latter, one of their adjusters called to express her personal concern we are under a tree and making sure we’re ok… assuring us again that the correct adjuster for our situation would get with us Monday.
Very refreshing and helpful, since this really isn’t their claim to pay in our book.
Research confirms sufficiently reckless negligence by the park manager and maintenance at TT/SJ failing to perform duties required to protect the health and safety of guests and guest property, thereby resulting in this scientifically predictable damage, occurring within a predictable timeframe, with the tree breaking in a ‘scientifically predictable way‘ and falling in a predictable pattern.
This is NOT an ‘accident’, this is NOT an ‘act of nature’, this is the direct result of flagrant disregard for guest safety. Resulting in failure to remove an easily identified ‘Hazard Tree‘. (see: Tree Science for more details)
Monday, April 24, 2017 – pending
THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS ARE PUBLICLY AVAILABLE RESOURCES, AVAILABLE TO ALL PERSONS AND COMPANIES VIA THE PUBLIC INTERNET. MANY MAHALOS TO THE EXCELLENT MINDS AND SOULS THAT HAVE INVESTED COUNTLESS HOURS TO MAKE THIS AND THOUSANDS MORE RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO HELP FORESEE AND PREVENT LOSS OF LIFE, LIMB OR PROPERTY.
The tree that fell, was a Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), that was obviously an unhealthy “Hazard Tree” as the following science and external evidences below will demonstrate.
“For the sake of brevity, most arborists consider the mature Western Hemlock the most likely candidate to either break or uproot in high winds.
Quote: This species seems to be predisposed to windthrow and disease, and has proved to be a difficult tree to evaluate, and a dangerous tree to retain”.
Hazard Trees: Please note that a “Hazard Tree”, is an ‘Official’ designation used in the field of ‘Real Property Risk Assessment’, and is applied to any tree, of any species, that if uprooted, broken at the trunk, or otherwise fell in an area where a ‘danger exists’, in which it could reasonably be expected to cause death, serious physical harm, real or personal property damage. This includes areas commonly used for; children and family camping, or parking vehicles — cars, trucks, motorhomes, coaches, ATVs, etc.
Any Risk Management Professional; will advise that once any tree has been deemed hazardous, property maintenance staff should immediately; (a) post hazard warning signs; (b) rope off the area to prevent access, or otherwise keep people, pets, and vehicles out of the ‘Failure Potential‘ zone; until the “Hazard Tree” has been professionally trimmed, removed or otherwise corrected to reduce or eliminate the hazard identified, to an acceptable level of safety.
It’s a given, that commercial property owners inviting large numbers of people and vehicles on to private property, have an obligation to “inspect on property trees, as a part of a reasonable Commercial Risk Management Assessment. Thereby, noting and reporting any potential problems such as “Hazard Trees”.
A simple, inexpensive act that can save lives, reduce or eliminate real and personal property damage and safeguard the noteworthy investment that healthy trees add to a particular property”.
“In the case of diseased trees, they should be removed promptly to avoid infecting adjacent trees”.
“It is imperative that arborists, landscapers, and grounds maintenance personnel recognize the signs that a particular tree may present a real hazard”.
“Trees with conks should be treated in recreation areas. Remove live trees with broken tops, sizable wounds, or conks”. “General guidelines for danger tree indicators, Hemlock Failure Potential Imminent, if signs of Bole wounds, mistletoe cankers, or fungal cankers”.
“Conks, mushrooms, and other fruiting bodies, on and around trees should be identified since these are primary indicators of decay (disease)”.
“Trees should also be inspected before and after high-risks events, such as storms. By inspecting your trees for warning signs, many potential problems can be mitigated before complications arise”. “In most cases visible indicators of heart rot can be detected on a tree. Common indicators include: conks and mushrooms, large wounds, broken or dead tops, and cracks”.
While research reveals that “external indicators are not sufficient to judge the internal condition of Hemlock Trees. Once a tree is infected by a fungus and mushrooms appear, there is little, if anything, you can do to save the tree”. “Fungi, in most cases, are involved in tree diseases that result in the tree becoming a hazard”.
“Mushroom-like structures growing on the trunk or root area give you the most obvious signs that a tree is suffering from a fungal disease or internal decay”. “Nothing can be done for the tree once it is infected. Nor is it likely that the fungus can be completely eliminated from the soil or general area around the tree once the tree is removed”.
“Mushrooms on a tree are an indication the tree is suffering damage. The tree may be dying, or at least facing serious health issues. Mushrooms are the fruiting body of a fungus, and they often sprout after the fungus has already established itself inside the tree. By the time mushrooms form, the internal structure of the tree is usually already compromised“.
“When bracket fungi, or conks, appear on a tree, it usually indicates well advanced internal decay. The wood will have deteriorated to the point where the tree may be structurally unsound, causing the stem to break”.
NOTE: “This mushroom is also known as the West Coast Reishi Mushroom. One of the rarest and most potent medicinal mushrooms found in the West Coast forests. This Mushroom loves to grow on large old Hemlocks”.
Often, these structures grow at the point of entry for the pathogen — injuries or wounds caused by mower strikes, pruning, lightning strikes or insect activity”. “Whenever mushrooms or mushroom-like structures appear around or on your tree, fungal infection is the likely cause”.
“A tree with fungal fruiting structures on several limbs, the trunk, butt, or roots should be removed promptly if it is in a location where property damage may occur or people or pets could be struck by falling limbs or the falling tree”.
“Shelf fungi, also known as fungal conks, grow on decaying and hollow trees. The presence of these mushrooms indicates that the tree has a disease and is rotting on the inside.
The diseases can lead to severe damage in just a few months”. *more
“The type of fungus structure often indicates precisely which disease is attacking the tree, allowing you to make an informed decision on whether to try to treat the tree or have it removed for safety’s sake.
[source: Metrics / Tree Fail – right pic] —>
“In this case, the subject tree appears to be infected with Red-Belt Conk (Fomitopsis pinicola / genus: Ganodermataceae / Lingzhi)”. We’re no experts, in this sort of thing, however this mushroom has about 80 very close cousins all of which seem to be known to grow on decayed or rotting wood (ie; indicating rebirth from death).
“Wood impacted by this fungus may become more brittle and prone to breakage in high winds, and cannot be used for pulp production. The trees stem decay is caused by the fungi when it invades and colonizes in the wood of living trees and decomposes the wood before the tree is dead, it may take several years to kill the tree but makes the tree very susceptible to wind-throw“.
“Mushrooms growing on the ground at the base of a tree or even on the tree itself may be an indication of serious problems in the roots or in the trunk”. “Conks usually are found near ground level, but columns of decaying wood can extend as far as 15 feet above and below the conk“.
“There is also the ubiquitous ground compaction caused by machines [ie; 15-20 ton RVs] and people repeatedly trampling over the ground. This squeezes the oxygen from the soil, which is critical for the long-term survival of tree roots. With no oxygen, the tree roots begin to rot”.
“Much of the internal wood decay in western hemlock is associated with bole wounds and top breakage. Wood decay in bole wounds progresses rapidly in western hemlock compared to other tree species.”
“Wind moves like water, and like water, where the flow is restricted, the speed increases. These winds work on a tree like a mathematical equation, and when one or several variables are changed, either by pruning or the removal of nearby trees, the tree sometimes has to adapt to this by shedding a limb or its top”.
“Trees that can cause personal injury or property damage if they fall should be regularly inspected by a qualified expert for signs of wood decay and other structural weakness. Hazardous trees should be trimmed, cabled, braced, or removed”.
- HAZARD TREE ASSESSMENTS: DEVELOPING A SPECIES PROFILE FOR WESTERN HEMLOCK / Journal of Arboriculture 22(1): January 1996
- Fomitopsis pinicola see: Mushroom Expert and Wikipedia
- Mushroom-Like Fungus Found on Trees – Home Guides
- Common Insects and Diseases of Western Hemlock
- Hollow Tree Fungus
- Mushrooms & Dying Trees
- Inspect Your Trees Annually
- The Wood Database – Hemlock
- Symptoms of Pests and Disease
- ECOSHARE — Hemlock have low wind tolerance
- Why Do Trees Topple in a Storm?
- New Construction can be hard on trees.
- Tsuga heterophylla – Western Hemlock
- Forest Health Part-1 Part-2
- Tree Fungus Index
- International Society of Arboriculture
- Wood Decay Fungi
- Decay Fungi Images
- Tree Diseases that Create Hazards
- Forest Disease Management Notes – Page 26 / 23
- 19 Signs of Hazard Trees
- The lingzhi mushroom or reishi mushroom
- Potential for Tree Failure – USDA
- Field Guide for Danger Tree Identification – USDA pgs: 12, 27, 28, 31, 41
- How to Recognize and Prevent Tree Hazards – Univ. Tenn.
- Long-range planning for developed sites in the Pacific Northwest – p22
- Forest Health Handbook – NC p150
- Storms over the urban forest – Univ. Wisconsin
- Hurricane Matthew’s tree damage — was some of it preventable?
- Hazard Profiles of Alaskan Tree Species
Aloha and Mahalo Authors and Publishers,
Please note that this is a “NEWS REPORT and COMMENTARY”, created in the Public Interest, and is a “work in progress”. That is, the situation at hand is far too common in the real world.
The purpose of this article is to publish an important “Current News” story and “Commentary” on the complex nature of the problems encountered when a “Hazard Tree” falls and causes property damage or injury. Fortunately, we already survived the accident. If we are lucky, we may even end up with our coach repaired..?
MANY MAHALOS TO THE EXCELLENT MINDS AND SOULS THAT HAVE INVESTED COUNTLESS HOURS TO MAKE THIS AND THOUSANDS MORE RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO HELP FORESEE AND PREVENT LOSS OF LIFE, LIMB OR PROPERTY. LIKEWISE OTHERS TO HELP ALL OF US UNDERSTAND REASONABLE EXPECTATIONS AND JUSTICE, WHEN ACCIDENTS HAPPEN IN PUBLIC RECREATION AREAS LIKE HOTEL, CAMPGROUNDS, SKI RESORTS, GOLF COURSES, HEALTH CLUBS, SOCIAL CLUBS AND OTHER SIMILAR PROPERTIES AND FACILITIES.
Government and University Sources;
- United States Department of Agriculture,
- United States Forest Services,
- Various State Forest and Park Services,
- Agriculture and Natural Resources,
- University of California,
- Washington State University,
- Canadian Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resources,
- Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences,
- Agricultural Extension Service
- University of Tennessee,
- North Carolina Forest Service,
- University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point,
- Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
- Florida International University,
- University of Arkansas,
- Jefferson County Code
Public and Private Sources;
- The Journal of Arboriculture,
- Hearst Communications,
- Pacific Northwest ISA,
- Eric Meier’s ‘Wood Database”,
- Scientific American,
- Plant Oregon,
- jowaca digital solutions ,
- International Society of Arboriculture,
- Mario Vaden,
- Frank Whittemore — Leaf Group Ltd,
- The Taunton Press,
- Hearthside Healing,
- SBM Life Science Corp,
- DuBois Law Group LLC,
- LegalMatch, thefreedictionary.com,
- Wells Media Group — Insurance Journal,
- Dr. Doyice J. Cotten | Mary B. Cotten – Sportwaiver,
- Nolo, Citycounty Insurance Services,
- CityCounty Insurance Services,
- US Legal,
This document is replete with snips of material from more than 40 different authors and publications. It is our intention and much effort has been given to properly credit each source and in that endeavor, to link each use of their materials to the source materials in the instant used herein this document. Again, this is living document, and we are revising and improving snip source links as fast as possible for all text and images used.
AGAIN, MANY MAHALOS TO THE EXCELLENT MINDS AND SOULS THAT HAVE INVESTED COUNTLESS HOURS TO MAKE THIS AND THOUSANDS MORE RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO HELP FORESEE AND PREVENT LOSS OF LIFE, LIMB OR PROPERTY. LIKEWISE OTHERS TO HELP ALL OF US UNDERSTAND REASONABLE EXPECTATIONS AND JUSTICE, WHEN ACCIDENTS HAPPEN IN PUBLIC RECREATION AREAS LIKE HOTEL, CAMPGROUNDS, SKI RESORTS, GOLF COURSES, HEALTH CLUBS, SOCIAL CLUBS AND OTHER SIMILAR PROPERTIES AND FACILITIES.
Mahalo for visiting…